Detailed mapping near Sivrice shows that the northern margin of the Bitlis Suture zone consists of three major tectonostratigraphic units outcropping as distinct north-dipping thrust slices. From south to north these are: (1) the Pütürge Complex; (2) the Maden Complex; and (3) the Elazig Complex.
The pre-Eocene Pütürge Complex consists of 80% metapelite, 15% metaquartzite, and 5% recrystallized limestone. These rocks represent a continental margin sequence that has been metamorphosed to the lower greenschist facies. There are three generations of structural elements: (1) a transposition foliation and macroscopic isoclinal folds, (2) a crenulation cleavage and mesoscopic folds, and (3) kink bands. Structural analysis suggests that the second-generation structures were produced by a deformation phase that was oriented northeast-southwest. The Middle Eocene Maden Complex consists of colored melange that contains seven lithologies (in decreasing order of abundance): volcaniclastics, volcanics, mudstone, calcirudite, pelagic limestone, massive limestone, and basal conglomerate. These rocks are interpreted as near-arc basin deposits. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks have served as the melange matrix and contain two generations of structural elements: (1) a uniform northeast-dipping slaty cleavage; and (2) kink bands and folds. The Upper Cretaceous Elazig Complex consists of four units (from bottom to top) : (1) metagabbro; (2) diabase; (3) basalt; and (4) andesite. The basalt unit contains calc-alkaline volcaniclastic horizons and many andesite dikes. Contacts between the units are structural except for a gradational lithologic contact between the diabase and metagabbro units. The Elazig Complex is interpreted as a mafic island arc terrain.
Because of their similar orientation, the first-generation structures in the Maden Complex probably are related to the second-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex. These structures are interpreted to represent Medial Eocene assembly of the northern margin of the Bitlis Suture. First-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex are pre-Medial Eocene. Third-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex and second-generation structures in the Maden Complex probably formed during late Miocene suturing to the south.
The Neogene East Anatolian Fault cuts these units and is characterized by oblique-slip faulting near the Lake Hazar pull-apart basin.
Hempton, M.R., 1982. Structure of the northern margin of the
Bitlis Suture Zone near Sivrice, southeastern Turkey. Unpublished
PhD dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 389pp.,
+xviii; 6 folded plates (maps)
University at Albany Science Library call number: SCIENCE MIC Film 40 Z899 1982 H45
Copies of this PhD dissertation can be ordered from Proquest UMI
Front matter (title, table of contents, abstract, acknowledgements) - 0.5MB pdf file
Photo pages in dissertation (coloured photos with captions) 10.5MB pdf file
Plate 1A - Geological
Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part A
(uncoloured geological outcrop map) 6.1MB pdf file
Plate 1B - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part B (uncoloured geological outcrop map) 6.4MB pdf file
Plate 1C - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part C (uncoloured geological outcrop map) 3.7MB pdf file
Plate 1D - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map legend (uncoloured geological map legend) 1.4MB pdf file
Plate E - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Cross Sections (uncoloured geological cross sections) 1MB pdf file
Plate F - Geology of Hacibat Peninsula, Lake Hazar, SE Turkey (coloured outcrop geological map; scale 1:1000) 9.1MB pdf file
[map positions Google Earth - mapA kmz pin; kmz linked polygon; mapB kmz pin; kmz linked polygon; mapC kmz pin; kmz linked polygon]
[Hacibat peninsula map kmz pin; kmz linked polygon]
fold-out figures on diazo paper: outcrop profiles 3-21; 4-48; 4-49; regional lineament map 10-3; regional seismicity map 10-4
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